2007. It’s called Akashiwo Sanguinea. (, Tang, Y. In general, this species is not considered to be toxic, and no toxicity or harmful activity has been verified in the IRL. The medium was prepared with filtered (0.22 μm membrane filter, Jingteng, China) … Reports of toxicity in A. sanguinea are mostly anecdotal and based on its abundance in natural populations in which mortality has occurred. T Matsubara, S Nagasoe, Y Yamasaki, T Shikata, Y Shimasaki, Y Oshima, ... Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342 (2), 226-230, 2007. Change History. Type species . However, the formation mechanisms of A. sanguinea blooms remain unclear. 2015-04-08 10:59:52 Susanne Busch - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2015-04-08 10:46:58 Susanne Busch - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2015-04-08 10:44:42 Susanne Busch - Added media: Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2014-09-26 12:25:32 Janina Kownacka - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_5.jpg Qiu X, Yamasaki Y, Shimasaki Y, Gunjikake H, Honda H, Kawaguchi M, Matsubara T, Nagasoe S, Etoh T, Matsui S, Honjo T, Oshima Y., Allelopathy of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo against the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea is mediated via allelochemicals and cell contact , Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 446, 107-118, 2012.01. (, Heisler, J., Glibert, P. M., Burkholder, J. M., Anderson, D. M., Cochial, W., Dennison, W. C., Dortch, Q., Gobler, C. J. et al. 40: 49-60. (, Prince, E. K., Myers, T. L. and Kubanek, J. This foam acts like a detergent, stripping away seabirds’ water resistance and causing them to become wet and hypothermic. Bockstahler, KR & DW Coats. This diversion represented an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the impact of large increases in nutrients derived from human activities on a natural ecosystem. Matsubara et al. It is a swimming marine alga that episodically forms toxic surface aggregations known as harmful algal bloom. Rep. 6 , 34645; doi: 10.1038/srep34645 (2016). 2006 . These parasites prevent repro- duction of their hosts and kill infected cells on a time scale of days. Otherwise, vegetative cell division is the normal means of reproduction. Z., Turanov, A. Ragelis (Ed.) Seafood Toxins. Akashiwo sanguinea cells retained by 8-µm filters were washed several times with sterilized seawater to remove attached bacteria, and the combined filtrates were filtered through a 0.22-µm membrane filter to concentrate bacterial cells.  Akashiwo sanguinea (= Gymnodinium splendens) forms dense, patchy blooms in the Eastern Pacific, from California to Peru [Dugdale et al., 1977]. The initial cell densities for C. geminatum and A. sanguinea were 500 cells mL −1. (, Poulson, K. L., Sieg, R. D., Prince, E. K. and Kubanek, J. Hansen et Moestrup, Alexandrium tamarense (M. Lebour) Balech, Alexandrium affine (H. Inoue et Fukuyo) Balech, Gonyaulax polygramma F. Stein, and Gymnodinium instriatum (Freud. However, toxicity of mice was reported by Tindall et al. Bull. Page last updated: 14 June 2011, Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Miller D, Pfreundt U, Hou S, Lott SC, Hess WR, Berman-Frank I Winter mixing impacts gene expression in marine microbial populations in the Gulf of Aqaba AME 80:223-242 | Full text in pdf format. This document lists algae , algal toxins, and other pathogens in the One Health Harmful Algal Bloom Akashiwo sanguinea cells were inoculated in 250 mL flasks containing 85 mL f/2 medium without silicate (Guillard 1975) to a final concentration of 5000 cells mL −1 every 2 weeks. No reports were found on the sexual cycle of A. sanguinea. The dinoflagellate foam is the one that caused bird mortalities in both 2007 and 2009. Akashiwo sanguinea is a dinoflagellate that caused a large fish kill along Bolivar Peninsula in September 2007. (, Zhou, C., Fu, Y., Chen, Q. and Yan, X. Akashiwo sanguinea is also present in Long Island Sound and has been attributed to invertebrate, fish, and seabird mortality events around the world. 1. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Toxicity. While hypothermia can be fatal, birds that wash ashore alive often respond well to rehabilitation efforts. The dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea will benefit from future climate change: The interactive effects of ocean acidification, warming and high irradiance on photophysiology and hemolytic activity Alexandrium monilatum. Akashiwo was one of four new genera that was redefined using the analysis. Heterosigma akashiwo is a species of microscopic algae of the class Raphidophyceae. The organism is unarmored. 2017 Acute toxicity of the cosmopolitan bloom-forming dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea to finfish, shellfish, and zooplankton. The role of photosynthesis and food uptake for the growth of marine mixotrophic dinoflagellates, Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: a scientific consensus, Formation of harmful algal blooms cannot be explained by allelopathic interactions, Development of a marine fish model for studying in vivo molecular responses in ecotoxicology, LC-MS/MS detection of karlotoxins reveals new variants in strains of the marine dinoflagellate, A survey of the sterol composition of the marine dinoflagellates, Allelopathy in phytoplankton—biochemical, ecological and evolutionary aspects, Allelopathy, chemical communicatin, and plant defense, Survey for karlotoxin production in 15 species of gymnodinioid dinoflagellates (Kareniaceae, Dinophyta), Structure and absolute configuration of karlotoxin-2, an ichthyotoxin from the marine dinoflagellate, Allelopathic compounds of a red tide dinoflagellate have species-specific and context-dependent impacts on phytoplankton, Effects of harmful algal blooms on competitors: allelopathic mechanisms of the red tide dinoflagellate, A dinoflagellate exploits toxins to immobilize prey prior to ingestion. Toxicity was enhanced by increased nutrient supply, suggesting that this species … Is the foam toxic to marine life? Hyeong-Kyu Kwon, Seok-Jin Oh, Growth Response of the Dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in Relation to Temperature, Salinity and Irradiance, and its Advantage in Species Succession, Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment and Safety, 10.7837/kosomes.2014.20.1.001, 20, 1, (1-10), (2014). In ventral view (Figure 1) the epicone is bluntly rounded; the hypocone has two prominent posterior lobes and an incised sulcus. Whether or not this species is toxic has yet to be determined, but it is thought that fish kills most likely occur because of large-scale blooms that result in low oxygen levels in the water. In An Unusual Bloom of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea off the Central Oregon USA, scientists wanted to find the rise and demise of a sudden algae bloom of the coast in Oregon. dinoﬂagellates Akashiwo sanguinea is a conspicuous harmful, but not toxic species (Kudela et al., 2005). 2002. Then, the algicidal powder was added to algal cells at different concentrations, the toxicity for Akashiwo sanguinea was determined via dose response curve, as described in our previous study (Chen et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2015). Evidence that A. sanguinea … A comprehensive insight into functional profiles of free-living microbial community responses to a toxic Akashiwo sanguinea bloom. 2009. In culture, several size morphologies are sometimes seen that may have reproductive significance or simply represent phenotypic variability. 1984. NORSWater@cdc.gov 2 . The allelopathic and toxic potencies among K. veneficum strains were not parallel, which indicates that the allelochemicals and fish-killing toxins of K. veneficum may be different chemicals, or the same responsible chemicals functioned in different modes to algae and animals. A. sanguinea can produce mycosporine -like amino acids as water-soluble, surface-active substance ( surfactant) reduces the surface tension of the water. Ciguatoxigenic Dinoflagellates from the Caribbean Sea. Video. HAB implications. Reports of toxicity in A. sanguinea are mostly anecdotal and based on its abundance in natural populations in which mortality has occurred. Jessup DA, Miller, MA, Ryan, JP, Nevins, HM, Kerkering, HA et al. Akashiwo sanguinea is associated with harmful algal blooms ( red tides ), and is still the subject of research. In general, this species is not considered to be toxic, and no toxicity or harmful activity has been verified in the IRL. The protist can produce mycosporine-like … There were no consistent sterol profiles that characterized the genus Amoebophyra. Acute toxicity of the cosmopolitan bloom-forming dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea to finfish, shellfish, and zooplankton. akashiwo (Japanese)= red tide. (, Legrand, C., Rengefors, K., Fistarol, G. O. and Granéli, E. (, Li, A. S., Stoecker, D. K. and Coats, D. W. (, Lovett, J. V., Ryuntyu, M. Y. and Liu, D. L. (, Mooney, B. D., de Salas, M., Hallegraeff, G. M. and Place, A. R. (, Peng, J. N., Place, A. R., Yoshida, W., Anklin, C. and Hamann, M. T. (, Place, A., Adolf, J., Bachvaroff, T., Zhang, H. and Lin, S. (, Place, A. R., Bowers, H. A., Bachvaroff, T. R., Adolf, J. E., Deeds, J. R. and Sheng, J. 2.1 Study Area. Jessup et al. All experiments were performed in 10-mL culture tubes for 72 h under the same conditions used for maintaining cultures. Hemolytic Toxicity of Three Important Harmful Microalgae Isolated from Pearl River Estuary. Change History. Aquat. While Akashiwo sanguinea is not toxic, blooms of this dinoflagellate produce a surfactant foam when exposed to wave action. Allelopathy in harmful algae: a mechanism to compete for resources? Change in Reports of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) 1970 . Large-scale bloom of Akashiwo sanguinea in the Northern California current system in 2009 Angelicque b E. Whitea,*, Katie S. Watkins-Brandta, S. Morgaine McKibbena, A. MichelleWood ,MatthewHunterc,ZachForsterd,XiuningDu e,f,WilliamT.Peterson a College b of Earth, Ocean & Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, 104 CEOAS Admin, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA As part of the discharge monitoring program, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity test methods are conducted on samples collected from the outfalls and receiving water twice a year, once during a storm event and once during dry weather. Among the significantly changed genes, 67 showed significant (p < 0.05) correlations with A. sanguinea density; genes within C, N, S, P cycling and stress categories are shown in Fig. Tindall, DR, Dickey, RW, Carlson, RD & G Morey-Gaines. Z., Hu, Z. X. and Deng, Y. Y. In this study, we analyzed the carbonyl compounds from eight common HAB-forming species ( Akashiwo sanguinea, Karenia mikimotoi, Karlodinium veneficum, Margalefidinium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. minimum, Scrippsiella trochoidea , and Heterosigma akashiwo ) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan and selected ion monitoring (SIM) modes. MOCHA project scientists documented the occurrence, spatial extent and ecological consequences of a rare albeit massive bloom of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in 2009-2010. Akashiwo sanguinea was co-cultured with the four components of C. geminatum JX25. The dorsal side is convex and the ventral side is somewhat concave. Akashiwo sanguinea is a dinoflagellate that caused a large fish kill along Bolivar Peninsula in September 2007. Hansen and Moestrup describe these features in detail and provide additional references. If this feature is not supported by your browser, please refer to the accompanying glossary for terminology. Hyeong-Kyu Kwon, Seok-Jin Oh, Growth Response of the Dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in Relation to Temperature, Salinity and Irradiance, and its Advantage in Species Succession, Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment and … Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 80(3), 209-222. OHHABS Algae, Algal Toxin, and Other Pathogens Lists . Akashiwo sanguinea is exclusively planktonic and has a worldwide distribution in temperate and tropical waters. The prediction was verified when further testing revealed that levels of the HAB toxin domoic acid Unless otherwise noted, all images and text by PE HargravesEditing and page maintenance by LH Sweat J. Larsen, Akashiwo sanguinea (Hiraska) Ge. Search for other works by this author on: Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, Species specificity and potential roles of, Historic overview of algal blooms in marine and estuarine waters of New South Wales, Australia, Mathematical-modeling of allelopathy-biological response to allelochemicals and its interpretation, Pigmentation and morphology of a marine gyrodinium (Dinophyceae) with a major carotenoid different from peridinin and fucoxanthin, Harmful Algae Management and Mitigation Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Singapore), Sterol-specific membrane interactions with the toxins from, Effects of size and concentration of food particles on the feeding behavior of the marine planktonic copepod. Characterization of the toxicity of Cochlodinium polykrikoides isolates from Northeast US estuaries to finfish and shellfish. Foam in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Foam created by the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea along the shoreline in Monterey Bay. Scientists noticed a different kind of algae bloom in Southwest Florida this week. Because the algicidal compounds in the fermentation broth were relatively complex and algal lysis was the comprehensive result generated by several algicidal … In cross section, the cell is ovoid with strong dorso-ventral compression. ... What we do get is foam from kelp, and foam from a dinoflagellate called Akashiwo sanguinea. Reproduction of the phytoplankton species is primarily asexual. The cingulum is approximately median and slightly descending. Akashiwo sanguinea, which has been shown to be toxic to aquatic animals recently (Xu et al., 2017), also displayed significant inhibiting effects on three strains of K. veneficum (KVBDH-1, KVND-1, and less potent in KV7+8) and stimulating effects on the strain KVPRE-1. ACS Symposium Series 262, American Chemical Society. Researchers found that the blooms are most common during mid to late summer, indicating that A. sanguinea does well in the warmer temperatures and when upwelling is sporadic and stratified conditions remain. A. sanguinea is found throughout the IRL during most of the year, sometimes exceeding 105 cells per liter, although rare in the Mosquito Lagoon. Although these blooms have been associated with harmful effects to fish and shellfish, the mechanism for toxicity has scantly been examined up tell now and as such is still unknown. However, Hara and Chihara (1987) described both specimens as one species, validly describing them as "H. akashiwo". Antialgal activity of a hepatotoxin-producing cyanobacterium, Harmful algal blooms: Their ecophysiology and general relevance to phytoplankton blooms in the sea, Characteristical life history (resting cyst) provides a mechanism for recurrence and geographic expansion of harmful algal blooms of dinoflagellates: a review, Allelochemical interactions and short-term effects of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium on selected photoautotrophic and heterotrophic protists, Structure and relative potency of several karlotoxins from, A preliminary study of the toxicity and mechanism of, The log likelihood radio test (the G-test)—methods and tables for tests of heterogeneity in contingency tables, Molecular identification of a bloom-forming speciesisolated from Sanggou Bay in Shandong Province, Acute toxicity of the cosmopolitan bloom-forming dinoflagellate, Growth inhibition and formation of morphologically abnormal cells of, Feeding by phototrophic red-tide dinoflagellates on the ubiquitous marine diatom, © The Author(s) 2019. We are grateful for the technical help from Dr. LX Shang and Ms. H Wang. Biol. They have a large number of yellow or brown chloroplasts that radiate from the cell center with a nucleus in the middle that is distinguishable by appearing as a clear area. A comprehensive insights into functional profiles of free-living microbial community responses to a toxic Akashiwo sanguinea bloom. Daugbjerg, N, Hansen, G, Larsen, J & Ø Moestrup. J. Eukaryot. It occurs only in the seaward regions of San Francisco Bay [ Cloern and Dufford , 2005 ], suggesting that it is an allochthonous species produced in the coastal ocean and transported into the Bay by density‐driven currents or tidal dispersion. Genes linked to the Akashiwo sanguinea community. It is also susceptible to parasitic dinoflagellates such as Amoebophrya (Coats & Park 2002), which may represent an unexplored means of population control in the IRL. Live Akashiwo sanguinea. Our results … Photo: Cori Gibble. Mass stranding of marine birds caused by a surfactant-producing red tide. Akashiwo sanguinea is also present in Long Island Sound and has been attributed to invertebrate, fish, and seabird mortality events around the world. Akashiwo sanguinea is a harmful—but not toxic—species that causes blooms around the world. Akashiwo sanguinea is a species of marine dinoflagellates well known for forming blooms that result in red tides. et J. J. Lee) Coats, along with their Amoebophyra parasites. (, Sheng, J., Malkiel, E., Katz, J., Adolf, J. E. and Place, A. R. (, Singh, D. P., Tyagi, M., Kumar, A., Thakur, J. and Kumar, A. 80, 209-222. Unauthorized copying and replication of text, images, and tables in our homepage, are prohibited. … Toxicity: No Bloom: Yes (Daugbjerg et al. Most of these ultrastructural details are typically not visible in the light microscope, except the large clockwise spiral of the apical groove (not shown here) can rarely be discerned. J. Larsen, Akashiwo sanguinea (Hiraska) Ge. In this study, we analyzed free-living bacterial communities from Xiamen sea during an Akashiwo sanguine bloom using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The central role of selenium in the biochemistry and ecology of the harmful pelagophyte. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (, Long-term changes of ichthyoplankton communities in an Iberian estuary are driven by varying hydrodynamic conditions, Scyphozoan jellyfish (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from Amazon coast: distribution, temporal variation and length–weight relationship, The sediment akinete bank links past and future blooms of Nostocales in a shallow lake, Thermal performance of marine diatoms under contrasting nitrate availability, Cladoceran body size distributions along temperature and trophic gradients in the conterminous USA, https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. (, Tillmann, U., Alpermann, T., John, U. and Cembella, A. However, toxicity of mice was reported by Tindall et al. Hulburt, E. 1957. The toxicity of the four strains also varied among strains and showed a decreasing order completely coincided with their culturing histories in laboratory, which suggests K. veneficum may have lost the toxicity gradually during a long time of laboratory culturing. 23. Caiyun Yang, Yi Li, Yanyan Zhou, Xueqian Lei, Wei Zheng, Yun Tian, Joy D. Van Nostrand, Zhili He, Liyou Wu, Jizhong Zhou, Tianling Zheng, A comprehensive insight into functional profiles of free-living microbial community responses to a toxic Akashiwo sanguinea bloom, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/srep34645, 6, … To give a sense of the range, the highest cellular concentrations seen in the environment have not yet exceeded 200 pg/cell in the most toxic cells. A., Zhang, Y., Doblin, M., Taylor, G. T., Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A. et al. Coats, DW & MG Park. (, Yamasaki, Y., Nagasoe, S., Matsubara, T., Shikata, T., Shimasaki, Y., Oshima, Y. and Honjo, T. (, Yoo, Y. D., Jeong, H. J., Kim, M. S., Kang, N. S., Song, J. Y., Shin, W., Kim, K. Y. and Lee, K. (, Zhou, C., Fernandez, N., Chen, H., You, Y. and Yan, X. Washington, DC. PLoS ONE 4: e4550. Microb. This month, September 2016, there was a large increase in the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in Monterey Bay.While not toxic, it has the ability to discolor the water and also produce a surfactant foam. 34 . Introduction . For questions, comments or contributions, please contact us at: Akashiwo sanguinea was co-cultured with the four components of C. geminatum JX25. This widespread dinoflagellate has appeared in the literature under several names as a species of Gymnodinium, but differs from that genus in several ultrastructural details that led Hansen and Moestrup (in Daugbjerg et al. The effect of different temperatures … Click to pause, double-click to play. For example, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Akashiwo sanguinea are two species of mixotrophic dinoflagellates that are known to feed on the toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense. email@example.com Experts say it’s not harmful to humans, but can kill fish. Akashiwo sanguinea. All experiments were performed in 10-mL culture tubes for 72 h under the same conditions used for maintaining cultures. Researchers explored the causation of the algal bloom of Akashiwo sanguinea which was very harmful to coastal birds along the coast of Oregon. 1. Biol. There are nucleotide sequence data for over four dozen samples identified as A. sanguinea at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. Karlodinium veneficum is a cosmopolitan, toxic, and harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate, of which the mixotrophy has been suggested to be a key factor in the formation and maintaining of HABs and thus deserves more intensive explorations. Here, we report an investigation on the phagotrophy of K. veneficum using a clonal culture isolated from the coastal water of East China … Spatial and temporal aspects of mixotrophy in Chesapeake Bay dinoflagellates. (, Calbet, A., Bertos, M., Fuentes-Grünewald, C., Alacid, E., Figueroa, R., Renom, B. and Garcés, E. (, Deeds, J. R., Kibler, S. R., Tester, P. A. and Place, A. R. (, Deeds, J. R., Mazzaccaro, A. Three important harmful algal bloom causative species, Prymnesium parvum (strain number: JX12), Karlodinium veneficum (strain number: JX24), and Akashiwo sanguinea (strain number: JX14) were isolated and identified from the Pearl River Estuary (see Figure 1). The initial cell densities for C. geminatum and A. sanguinea were 500 cells mL −1. Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 5;6:34645. doi: 10.1038/srep34645. The dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea is a well known, cosmopolitan harmful microalga that frequently forms harmful algal blooms (HABs) in marine estuaries from temperate to tropical waters, and has posed a severe threat to fish, shellfish, and sea birds. They possess a trailing flagellum, which can often be longer than the cell itself.Their patterns of movement tend to be very consistent, constantly moving utili… Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. R., Krupatkina, D. N., Nonogaki, H., Brown, P. J. P., Lewitus, A. J., Harvey, H. R. and Place, A. R. (, Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. and Place, A. R. (, Adolf, J. E., Krupatkina, D., Bachvaroff, T. and Place, A. R. (, Ajani, P., Hallegraeff, G. and Pritchard, T. (, An, M., Johnson, I. R. and Lovett, J. V. (, Bachvaroff, T. R., Adolf, J. E. and Place, A. R. (, Bergholtz, T., Daugbjerg, N., Moestrup, Ø. and Fernández-Tejedor, M. (, Cai, P., He, S., Zhou, C., Place, A. R., Haq, S., Ding, L., Chen, H., Jiang, Y. et al. The 0.22-µm filters with bacterial cells were then stored at … (Smithsonian) They have an epicone which is slightly rounded, the hypocone possesses two prominent posterior lobes. There were no consistent sterol profiles that characterized the genus Amoebophyra. 2000. Whether or not this species is toxic has yet to be determined, but it is thought that fish kills most likely occur because of large-scale blooms that result in low oxygen levels in the water. (, Jonsson, P. R., Pavia, H. and Toth, G. (, Kempton, J. W., Lewitus, A. J., Deeds, J. R., Law, J. M. and Place, A. R. (, Kong, R. Y. C., Giesy, J. P., Wu, R. S. S., Chen, E. X. H., Chiang, M. W. L., Lim, P. L., Yuen, B. Hansen et Moestrup, Alexandrium tamarense (M. Lebour) Balech, Alexandrium affine (H. Inoue et Fukuyo) Balech, Gonyaulax polygramma F. Stein, and Gymnodinium instriatum (Freud. 6. Published by Oxford University Press. 342: 226-230. Effect of temperature, salinity, and irradiance on the growth of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Akashiwo. how toxic are the algal cells themselves) is at or above 10 picograms per cell (pg/cell). While not toxic, this marine plankton species has the ability to discolor the water and also produce a surfactant foam. This species lives as single cells. Little is known regarding how harmful algal bloom species respond to different temperatures in terms of fatty acid production. Microbiol. Moreover, we found that the toxicity of K. veneficum caused A. salina to avoid feeding on more toxic strains. The highest concentrations occurred between the Pajaro River and Capitola Beach. Sanguinea=Adjective (Latin), blood-red (Stearn 1973), describing the resulting color of the water after a red tide event. ml−1) significantly inhibited the growth of A. sanguinea, and the inhibitory effects varied among strains. A., Terlizzi, D. E. and Place, A. R. (, Deeds, J. R., Terlizzi, D. E., Adolf, J. E., Stoecker, D. K. and Place, A. R. (, Gobler, C. J., Lobanov, A. V., Tang, Y. Brown Tides Macroalgae . Cas Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China, College of Earth And Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. (, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Z., Zhang, Q., Duan, S. and Gobler, C. J. Z., Qin, J. L., Duan, S. S. and Gobler, C. J. The nucleus is just above the cingulum in the epicone, and distinguishable in living cells by appearing as a clear area (Figures 1, 2). (2007) characterize this species as eurythermal and euryhaline. A., Tillmann, U., García-Camacho, F., Sánchez-Mirón, A., Gallardo-Rodríguez, J. J., López-Rosales, L., Andree, K. B. et al. In the literature, the species currently known as A. sanguinea is treated under several names, some of which reﬂect renaming of the species, others are synonyms, including most recently Gymnodinium sanguineum Certain species of mixotrophic dinoflagellates can be affected by light intensity and nutrient conditions . Noctiluca? 2020-11-20 11:43:58 Marita Helgesen - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_7.jpg ; 2020-11-20 11:41:19 Marita Helgesen - Added media: Akashiwo sanguinea_7.jpg ; 2015-04-08 10:59:52 Susanne Busch - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2015-04-08 10:46:58 Susanne Busch - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG Akashiwo sanguinea has been correlated to Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), but more study is needed to make sense of the blooms. Phycologia 39: 302-317. A comprehensive insight into functional profiles of free-living microbial community responses to a toxic Akashiwo sanguinea bloom et J. J. Lee) Coats, along with their Amoebophyra parasites. Zhaohe Luo, Weidong Yang, Chui Pin Leaw, Vera Pospelova, Gwenael Bilien, Guat Ru Liow, Po Teen Lim, Haifeng Gu, Cryptic diversity within the harmful dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in coastal Chinese waters is related to differentiated ecological niches, Harmful … An earlier, very short diversion resulted in an algal bloom dominated by dinoflagellates and included the potentially harmful Akashiwo sanguinea and Cochlodinium fulvescens. Harmful Algae 8:454–462. Effects of temperature, salinity, and irradiance on the growth of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. 225-240. Most research was done in the field. 112: 196-219. Mar. This bloom spanned the coastlines of both Washington and Oregon and led to widespread deaths of seabirds. Akashiwo sanguinea (formerly Gymnodinium sanguineum, Gynodinium nelsonii, Gymnodinium splendens) is a dinoflagellate common to coastal marine and estuarine waters where it forms blooms. B. H., Yip, B. W. P. et al. 37. Blooms of Akashiwo sanguinea frequently break out around the world, causing huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry and seriously damaging coastal ecosystems. These results together suggest that the production of toxins by K. veneficum provides an advantage in proliferation to the species via avoiding predation, but the allelopathic effects may not play an important role in initiating blooms of the species. However, whether K. veneficum exhibited positive (stimulating) or negative (inhibiting) allelopathy at lower densities depended upon strains, co-culturing time duration, and the initial cell density ratio of test to target species. The taxonomy of unarmored Dinophyceae of shallow embayments on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The bacterial C degradation genes (AceA-isocitrate lyase, pectinase and phenol oxidase) showed significantly positive correlations with A. sanguinea … 2000) to transfer the species to the new genus. Parasitism of photosynthetic dinoflagellates by three strains of Amoebophrya (Dinophyta): parasite survival, infectivity, generation time, and host specificity. Ecol. (, Xu, N., Wang, M., Tang, Y.
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