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To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. In this study, we use the Interest Rate Uncertainty measure from Istrefi and Mouabbi (2018) to look at monetary policy uncertainty (MPU) spillovers between the US, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, UK, Japan, Canada, and Sweden in both the time and frequency domains. The spillovers change over time, and most of these increase in size with the increase in time, starting from a shock. Policy uncertainty (also called regime uncertainty) is a class of economic risk where the future path of government policy is uncertain, raising risk premia and leading businesses and individuals to delay spending and investment until this uncertainty has been resolved. In the MA representation, the generalized forecast error variance decomposition (GFEVD) at the H-step-ahead forecast horizon can be used to calculate the total, directional and pairwise spillovers of Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012, 2015). Estimating the transmission of shocks to monetary policy uncertainty is the focus of this paper. 2017a; Biljanovska et al. Denoting GFEVD by \(\vartheta _{ij}\left( H\right) \) as follows: where \(\sigma _{jj}\) is the standard deviation (SD) of the disturbances for the variable j. Springer Nature. We construct a new measure of uncertainty about Federal Reserve policy actions and their consequences, a monetary policy uncertainty (MPU) index. Authors: Grégory Claeys, Maria Demertzis, Jan Mazza . Tran (2019) showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between the Monetary Policy Uncertainty (Baker et al. Future studies in this area can also look at the bi-directional spillovers between developed and developing countries. A monetary policy framework for the European Central Bank to deal with uncertainty Monetary Dialogue November 2018 Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies . Monetary Policy and Uncertainty Paul Jenkins, Deputy Governor and David Longworth, Adviser • In formulating monetary policy, central banks must cope with substantial economic uncertainty. In addition, our measure in principle represent uncertainty perceived by a different and potentially broader segment of the population. A seemingly unrelated event in one country or sector can be transmitted to a different country or sector, where the effects of these shocks are persistent and can be reinforced by other shocks. Data for the 10-year yields start 4 years prior to the 3-month yields, so 48 should be added to that of the 3-month yield to obtain the same date. In some instances, the US becomes a net receiver of uncertainty, such as after the GFC in particular. The developing world may have a greater reliance on foreign denoted debt, and the spillovers to these countries would be larger than spillovers to developed countries. (2018) investigated the effect of EPU on the business cycle for 48 US states and 51 metropolitan statistical areas. Cite this article. Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 present the time-varying behavior of net pairwise spillovers from May 2007, while Figs. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 present the same for the 10y3m and 10y12m datasets from May 2003. In contrast, the US receives the least of the spillovers from all other countries (\(4.37\%\)) and Germany receives the most (\(9.03\%\)). The former’s results are tabulated, while the latter’s results are shown in the figures. The transmission mechanisms of monetary policy uncertainty are relatively unstudied, with Antonakakis et al. University of Pretoria Department of Economics Working Paper Series, No. (2020) found financial uncertainty transmits the shocks that drive economic and real estate uncertainty. As to the reverse effect, monetary policy now reacts significantly to uncertainty in some cases. We investigate the relationship between uncertainty about monetary policy and its transmission mechanism, and economic fluctuations. In the first chapter, I develop an extension of the standard New Keynesian model to monetary policy regime switching to study the impact of uncertainty around the future inflation target. The pairwise spillovers in the US show that, after the crisis, there are instances where this factor is a negative net transmitter (i.e., a net receiver) of uncertainty. Drew D. Creal & Jing Cynthia Wu, 2017. This analysis shows important conclusions. This is also consistent with the results of Diebold and Yilmaz (2015), where they consider the spillovers between the US and Euro area financial institutions. First, end the health crisis. Since the rows of \(\vartheta (H)\) do not necessarily sum to one, each element of the variance decomposition matrix can be normalized by the row sum: where \(\sum _{j=1}^{N}{{{\widetilde{\vartheta }}}_{ij} (H)}=1\) and \(\sum _{i,j=1}^{N}{{\widetilde{\vartheta }}_{ij} (H)}=N\). The data favors a model with two unspanned volatility factors that capture uncertainty about monetary policy and the term premium. A frequency domain analysis is useful as it allows us to quantify the time-varying relationships at different frequencies, without reducing observations. The US, Germany, France, and Spain are the most consistent transmitters of monetary policy uncertainty, while Sweden and Japan are the most consistent receivers of uncertainty spillovers. The total connectedness increases as the frequency increases in the BK, with the long term being more connected. Success here depends on us acting swiftly—and acting together. We also find that the US is a net transmitter of uncertainty for most of the samples, but there are some instances where it is a net receiver. In Table 4, we find that the size of spillovers indices in the short term is much smaller than that stemming from DY. Q Rev Econ Financ 70:194–202, Tran TD (2019) Measuring the macroeconomic impact of uncertainty. NBER Working Paper Series, No. For the time domain, we use the methodology created by Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012, 2015) and for the frequency domain, we use Baruník and Křehlík (2018), which builds on the former methodology. Most of the relationships are more stable after the GFC. (2016), where they searched newspaper articles for keywords. We examine whether monetary policy uncertainty influences the reaction of the equity, Treasury security, foreign exchange and crude oil markets, as well as medium-term interest rates, to U.S macroeconomic announcements. We use a Bayesian VAR framework (BVAR) to provide an analysis of the COVID-19 uncertainty shock on the economy and monetary policy response. statement and Q J Econ 131(4):1593–1636, Balcilar M, Demirer R, Gupta R, Van Eyden R (2017a) The impact of US policy uncertainty on the monetary effectiveness in the Euro area. These relationships change over time and we observe large variances in pairwise spillovers during the global financial crisis. (2017b) found that MPU suppresses inflation and output simultaneously, which leads to lower interest rates. As our sample of countries is small due to data availability, it would be interesting to see how the results change when a greater number of developing countries were included. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. California Privacy Statement, Table 1 gives the summary of the total spillovers of both methods, while Table 2 gives the net movements of all the countries for both methods. We construct new measures of uncertainty about Federal Reserve policy actions and their consequences - monetary policy uncertainty (MPU) indexes. In this study, we investigate monetary policy uncertainty spillovers using the connectedness methodologies developed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012, 2015) and Baruník and Křehlík (2018). This is due to the dollar being widely used as a funding currency. Downloadable! Balcilar et al. For example, the Federal Open Market Committee (2009) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) (2012, 2013) suggest that uncertainty about U.S. and European fiscal, regulatory, and monetary policies contributed to a steep economic decline in 2008–2009 and slow recoveries afterward.1 To investigate the role of policy uncertainty we first develo… In the US, \(60.71\%\) of the error variance in forecasting its uncertainty stems from its own uncertainty. Econ Lett 121(1):39–42, Çekin SE, Pradhan AK, Tiwari AK, Gupta R (2019) Measuring co-dependencies of economic policy uncertainty in Latin American Countries using vine copulas. We evaluate the information content of our index and document the usefulness of our index in bridging periods of conventional and unconventional policy making. Int J Forecast 28(1):57–66, Diebold FX, Yilmaz K (2015) Financial and macroeconomic connectedness: a network approach to measurement and monitoring. J Policy Model 39(6):1052–1064, Balcilar M, Gupta R, Jooste C (2017b) South Africa’s economic response to monetary policy uncertainty. Q Rev Econ Financ 2019:5, Diebold FX, Yilmaz K (2009) Measuring financial asset return and volatility spillovers, with application to global equity markets. The extent to which individual responses to household surveys are protected from discovery by outside parties depends... © 2020 National Bureau of Economic Research. Fed President Patrick Harker Forecasts Moderate Growth Through Rest of the Year Patrick T. Harker, president and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, told a virtual audience at the Wharton Private Equity and Venture Capital Alumni Association that he expects moderate economic growth for the rest of this year and the first half of 2021. Struct Change Econ Dyn 52:167–173, Gupta R, Ma J, Risse M, Wohar ME (2018) Common business cycles and volatilities in US states and MSAs: the role of economic uncertainty. MPU affects macroeconomic variables like inflation, output and the interest rate, which are important indicators to determine investment decisions and the timing of the investment. Monetary policy's effect on uncertainty is significant in the 6-variable VAR but borderline insignificant at the 68% level in the 4-variable VARs. When investigating spillovers, the literature seems fond of the connectedness measure developed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012, 2015). We calculate the net movements by subtracting the uncertainty receptions from the transmissions (TO-FROM, in the tables). All authors read and approved the final manuscript. We suspect that the spillovers that they receive from other countries would be larger than those in our analysis (compared to own spillovers) due to their greater reliance on foreign currency denoted debt. However, the own spillover index for the US is only \(12.32\%\). A, B and C correspond to the different panels in the BK tables in Appendix, where A is the short term (1–4 months), B is the medium term (4–12 months) and C the long term (12+ months), respectively. Privacy The uncertainty effect of COVID-19 hits … only looked at EPU, while Gabauer and Gupta (2018) looked at monetary, fiscal, currency and trade uncertainty. The crisis period can be seen at an approximate index of 20 (corresponding to Jan 2009) for the 3-month bond yields and 68 for the 10-year bond yields. Therefore, in the long run, a country’s uncertainty is mainly influenced by its own uncertainty. The VIX, the stock market option-based implied volatility, strongly co-moves with measures of the monetary policy stance. Monetary policy under uncertainty Speech by Peter Praet, Member of the Executive Board of the ECB, at the FAROS Institutional Investors Forum during the 18th Euro Finance Week 2015, Frankfurt, 19 November 2015. But it is impossible to have such a model, and that makes the work of macroeconomists—and central bank policy-makers— We show that, under a variety of VAR identification schemes, positive shocks to uncertainty about monetary policy robustly raise credit spreads and reduce output. The index consists of two bond maturity levels, 3 months and 10 years, at both 3- and 12-month ahead forecast horizons. Gupta et al. They find that after Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy, the US changed from a net transmitter to a net receiver of financial uncertainty. Gupta, R., Lau, C.K.M., Nel, J.A. In contrast, the diagonal elements of \(\vartheta (H)\) measure the contributions of shocks to variable i to its own forecast error variance. The analysis does not fully account for time-varying aspects of uncertainty spillovers, future studies can use methods that do, like TVP-VAR instead of a normal VAR in the analysis. The difference in start dates is due to the different time periods for the different datasets. The elements in the last row (labeled “TO”) represent directional spillovers transmitted by country i (column) to all other countries, and those in the last column (labeled “FROM”) are directional spillovers received by country j (row) from all other countries. \(\widetilde{\vartheta }_{ij} (H)\) provides a measurement of pairwise spillovers from variables j to i at horizon H. This can be aggregated to calculate the total spillover index \(C\left( H\right) \), which is defined as the share of variance in the forecasts contributed by errors other than its own, i.e., shocks to \(Y_j\), for \(i, j=1,2,\ldots , N,\ {\text{and}}\ i\ne j\). We also estimate the aggregate effects of shocks to … We found that there are MPU spillovers between the countries in our sample. The medium-term total spillover index is \(63\%\), which is higher than the short-term total spillover index, and close to that of DY. They used a stylized model and found that tightening of US monetary policy leads to movements in various global financial variables, including cross-border credit and leverage. The difference is due to the different start dates for the two bond yields. In the dynamic relationships, we find that most of the spillovers die down after the global financial crisis (GFC), decreasing in variance and moving to a level closer to zero. Econ Lett 58(1):17–29, Rey H (2015) Dilemma not trilemma: the global financial cycle and monetary policy independence. Monetary Policy Uncertainty Abstract We construct new measures of uncertainty about Federal Reserve policy actions and their consequences, monetary policy uncertainty (MPU) indexes.

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