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A.]. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 12 pp. Compendium record. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 448:128-135. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002209811300227X. As a facultative halophyte, R. mangle can tolerate waterlogged soils and high salinity in both water and sediment up to 90 ppt, but salinity is not a requirement for growth (Hill, 2001), and higher salinity can reduce establishment (Elster et al., 1999). Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Its most prominent feature is an array of aerial stilt roots (props) arising from the main trunk at 2.0-4.5 m height. Basal treatments of triclopyr are also reported to be effective on R. mangle. April, 2012. 1997), Considered a misidentification; record refers to R. samoensis, Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. These are fringe, riverine, overwash, basin and supra-tidal flats, the differences between these being mainly in elevation and the effects this has on changes in the water-level and proximity to the ocean. January, 2010. Simulated sea level change alters anatomy, physiology, growth, and reproduction of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.). Many of the habitats typically occupied by mangroves elsewhere in the tropics, as in Hawaii, had no tree cover at all, and as such they represent an entirely new life form in the ecosystems they invade, causing dramatic effects on plant community structure. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons. But noting the taxonomic issue, it is possible that some reports and records refer to misidentifications, especially in the Pacific and West Africa. An invasive species risk assessment for Australia indicated that R. mangle has the potential to invade mangrove communities in Queensland, competing or hybridizing with native Rhizophora species; it is thus classified as a ‘high risk’ species for preventative control (Csurhes and Shanahan, 2012). Natural stands of R. mangle tend to form single species monocultures with little genetic diversity (Lowenfeld and Klekowski, 1992), and being self-pollinating, this leads to inbreeding depression within the population (Proffitt et al., 2006). The importance of propagule predation in a forest of nonindigenous mangrove trees. Stilt roots of a fully grown Rhizophora stylosa can be 3 meters long and extend in a radius of up to 7 meters around the trunk. Morgantown, WV: Commune-Tech Associates. The introductions of 1922 as well as 1960 involved the planting of an estimated 3000 propagules (Allen, 1998). It is used as roundwood for posts and poles, for marine piling and wharves, shipbuilding, and in cabinetwork; it also produces excellent firewood and charcoal (Little and Skolmen, 1989), and is also occasionally exploited as a source of pulp wood (Duke, 1983). Egler (1948) describes the processes involved in the dispersal and establishment of mangrove seedlings. Aquatic Botany, 75(3):199-215. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4F-47CXD37-1&_user=10&_handle=W-WA-A-A-D-MsSAYWA-UUA-AUCAAZBUBZ-WWUADWWUW-D-U&_fmt=summary&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2003&_rdoc=2&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%234973%232003%23999249996%23385077!&_cdi=4973&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=acaeb416508d42611104d42748faa71c. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1, Fourqurean JW; Smith TJ; Possley J; Collins TM; Lee D; Namoff S, 2010. Influence of propagule flotation longevity and light availability on establishment of introduced mangrove species in Hawai'i. It has only ever been recorded from the Townsville Palmetum in coastal northern Queensland, the first and only record in Queensland or Australia, where two trees were reported planted, thought to have been ‘gifts’. Elster C; Perdomo L; Schnetter ML, 1999. Rhizophora species of mangroves have a conspicuous system of stilt-like roots (rhizophores) that grow from the main stem and resemble flying buttresses. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. The importance of propagule predation in a forest of non-indigenous mangrove trees. Rhizophora mangle excludes the salt in seawater at the root-substratum interface. The bell-shaped pale yellow base (hypanthium) less than 6 mm long bears four widely spreading narrow pale yellow sepals almost 13 mm long, leathery and persistent; four narrow petals 10 mm long, curved downward, whitish but turning brown, white woolly or cottony on inner side; eight stamens; pistil of two-celled ovary mostly inferior but conical at apex, with two ovules in each cell, slender style, and two-lobed stigma. http://www.tropicos.org/, Steele O C, Ewel K C, Goldstein G, 1999.

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